Struggling with knee pain but scared of the sky-high surgery costs? Look no further than Knee surgery in Istanbul, Turkey.

Regain your knee’s vitality without burning a hole in your pocket.

Receive top-quality care at savings of up to 57% compared to the UK.

Dive deeper into this article and discover how Istanbul is your path to pain-free movement.

Get Rid of Knee Pain With Robotic Surgery in Istanbul!

Regain strength & mobility

Tell me more!

Knee Surgery in Istanbul, Turkey: Reviews

Read firsthand accounts of individuals who’ve undergone knee surgery in Istanbul.

Get inspired by their experiences, outcomes, and the exceptional care they received.

“Opted for a knee replacement at Anadolu and was astounded by the expertise. Dr. Taren’s detailed guidance and the state-of-the-art facilities made my recovery swift. Plus, the Bosphorus views from my room were an added delight!”

~Ayla Öztürk, Turkey

“Injured my meniscus while hiking and was referred to MLP Care by one of my friends. The technology and care level, especially from Dr. Cagatay, were unparalleled. Today, I hike with zero issues. Highly recommended!”

~Selin Yılmaz, UK

Cost of Knee Surgery in Istanbul, Turkey

Undergoing knee surgery in the UK can be financially taxing.

While Istanbul offers the same expertise for a fraction of what you’d pay in the UK.

For instance, robotic knee surgery costs a mere €12,730 in Istanbul.

That’s ~57% less than the rates prevailing across Europe.

In the UK, you’d encounter a hefty price tag of €30,000.

Similarly, total knee replacement (unilateral) in Istanbul is priced at €10,000.

On the contrary, you’ll pay a substantial amount of €18,500 in the UK.

Still doubtful?

Check out the table below showcasing the Istanbul knee surgery cost breakdown.

Cost of Knee Surgery in Istanbul vs. the UK
Procedure UK Istanbul Savings
Total Knee Arthroplasty (Robotic) €30,000 €12,730 57%
Total Knee Replacement (Unilateral) €18,500 €10,000 45%
Total Knee Replacement (Bilateral) €25,000 €16,000 36%
Arthroscopic Meniscal Repair €10,000 €3,900 61%
Arthroscopic ACL Reconstruction €8,000 €4,900 39%
Cartilage Restoration €6,200 €3,150 50%
*The prices mentioned above are subject to change.

Contact MTC to get safe & affordable knee surgery in Istanbul, Turkey!

Why Istanbul is the Best Choice for Knee Surgery?

From renowned medical expertise to cultural richness, Istanbul ticks all the boxes.

But there’s more to it.

Discover why Istanbul stands as the ultimate destination for orthopedic surgery.

Six Major Benefits of Choosing Istanbul for Knee Surgery

Six Major Benefits of Choosing Istanbul for Knee Surgery

High Cost Savings

  • Affordability: Istanbul offers knee surgery at 57% less than in other European nations.
  • Cost of Living: This affordability is attributed to Turkey’s low living cost compared to the UK.[1]Expatistan
    Cost of living in Turkey compared to United Kingdom
    “Cost of living in Turkey is 49% cheaper than in United Kingdom”
    View in Article

Top-Notch Care

  • Technology: Istanbul boasts state-of-the-art facilities like DVRS & HIFU for better results.
  • Bilingual Staff: The doctors as well as the staff speak fluent English & Turkish.

Thus, facilitating effective patient-doctor communication.

Top Hospitals

  • Quality: Istanbul houses JCI-accredited hospitals known for their high-quality healthcare.
  • Credibility: MLP Care is the largest healthcare provider in Turkey, operating in 30+ hospitals across 17 cities.

Skilled Doctors

  • Expertise: Renowned orthopedic surgeons from around the world practice in Istanbul.
  • Experience: The doctors from our partner hospitals boast 20+ years of experience in knee surgeries.

Easy Travel

  • Convenient Location: Istanbul is a global hub with well-connected airports, making it easily accessible.
  • Medical Visa: Patients traveling to Turkey for medical procedures can easily and promptly secure a medical visa.[2]Health Turkey
    Medical VISA
    “Visitors coming to Türkiye for medical treatment can quickly and efficiently apply for a medical visa.”
    View in Article

Splendid Vacation

  • Culture & History: Istanbul’s rich cultural heritage includes historic sites like the Hagia Sophia & Blue Mosque.
  • Scenic Locations: Istanbul offers beautiful landscapes along the Bosphorus Strait.

Thus, aiding in post-surgery relaxation and recovery.

Scroll down to navigate through Istanbul’s premier orthopedic clinics.

Discovering the Top Orthopedic Hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey

Let’s delve into the top facilities in Istanbul that have set unparalleled standards in knee surgery.

Thus, providing patients with optimal care and outstanding results.

Medical Care

MLP in Istanbul, Turkey

MLP in Istanbul, Turkey


  • Established 25 years ago, Medical Park is the biggest chain of hospitals in Turkey.
  • They’re the largest in terms of number of hospitals, beds and geographic scope.


  • MLP Care has over 31 hospitals across 17 cities.

  • 8000+ beds
  • 4000+ doctors
  • 22,000 healthcare professionals


  • Accredited by Joint Commission International (JCI).
  • MLP hospitals are ranked first in Turkey for organ transplants.
  • Approximately 600 organ transplants are performed annually.
  • High-quality medical services aligned with international standards.


  • Liv Hospital brand
  • VM Medical Park

Seeking top-notch orthopedic care in Istanbul, Turkey? Scroll down to know more!

Best Orthopedic Surgeons in Istanbul, Turkey

Selecting the ideal orthopedic surgeon is pivotal for optimal surgical outcomes.

At MTC, we bridge this gap. Thus, connecting you seamlessly with Istanbul’s top orthopedic expertise.

Dr. Nevzat Selim Gokay

Dr. Nevzat Selim Gokay – Top Orthopedic Surgeon in Istanbul

EBOT Diploma of Dr. Nevzat Selim Gokay
Dr. Nevzat Selim Gokay, Istanbul
Dr. Nevzat Selim Gokay, Istanbul
Currently Working Acibadem Hospital
Education Graduated from the faculty of medicine (Cerrahpasa University)
Experience 20+ years
Certifications European Board of Orthopedics & Traumatology
  • Turkish Medical Association
  • Turkish Arthroplasty Association
  • International Cartilage Repair Society
  • Turkish Sports Injuries and Knee Surgery Association
  • Turkish Association of Orthopedics and Traumatology
  • Best Oral Presentation Award, 2012
  • Akif Sakir Sakar Research Award, 2006
  • Dervis Manizade Days Research Award, 2004

Dr. Cagatay Ozturk

Dr. Cagatay Ozturk – Orthopedic & Joint Replacement Surgeon

Dr. Cagatay Ozturk in Istanbul

Dr. Cagatay Ozturk in Istanbul
Currently Working Medical Park Group, Istanbul
Education MBBS, 1997, Hacettepe University
Experience 20+ years
Work Exp.
  • HOD, Istinye University
  • Senior consultant, Sisli Florence Nightingale Hospital
  • Turkish Medical Association
  • The North American Spine Society
  • The Minimally Invasive Spine Society
List of Treatments
  • Acetabular Fixation
  • Total Hip Replacement
  • Cemented Total Hip Replacement
  • Cementless Total Hip Replacement (THR) Surgery

Schedule an appointment with elite orthopedic surgeons in Istanbul who specialize in knee health.

Knee Surgery in Istanbul: Complete Guide

Knee surgery is a medical procedure performed to address issues or injuries in the knee joint.

Thus, restoring mobility and relieving pain.

Source: Medical News Today[3]Medical News Today
What to expect during a knee replacement
“Knee replacement surgery restores the weight-bearing façade of a damaged, worn, or diseased knee joint. The aim is to remove pain and restore mobility.”
View in Article

Total Knee Replacement in Istanbul, Turkey

Total Knee Replacement in Istanbul, Turkey

Am I Eligible for Knee Surgery in Istanbul, Turkey?

This surgical intervention is recommended for individuals who meet specific eligibility criteria. This includes:

Injury or Damage

Individuals with knee injuries like ligament tears or fractures. It’s also considered for chronic conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Persistent Pain

Knee surgery is considered when conservative treatments like medication and physical therapy don’t relieve persistent knee pain.

Limited Mobility

It’s an option for individuals whose knee problems significantly restrict daily activities or physical abilities.

Failed Treatments

Knee surgery becomes an option when non-surgical treatments like injections or bracing haven’t yielded results.

Source: Medical News Today[4]Medical News Today
What to expect during a knee replacement
“Severe knee pain or stiffness that prevents them from carrying out everyday tasks and activities, such as walking, going upstairs, getting in and out of cars, getting up from a chair Moderate but continuous knee pain that continues while sleeping or resting Chronic knee inflammation and swelling that does not improve after taking medications or resting Knee deformity, where there is a noticeable arch on the inside or outside of the knee Depression, resulting from an inability to carry out daily or social activities”
View in Article

Types of Knee Surgeries in Istanbul


Knee Arthroscopy in Istanbul

  • Arthroscopic knee surgery is a minimally invasive procedure.
  • A small incision and a tiny camera (arthroscope) are used to visualize and repair the knee joint.
  • It is used to treat various knee conditions, such as torn ligaments, damaged cartilage, or inflamed synovium.

Knee Arthroscopy in Istanbul

Knee Arthroscopy
Source: Medical News Today[5]Medical News Today
What is knee arthroscopy?
“Knee arthroscopy is a procedure that involves a surgeon investigating and correcting problems with a small tool called an arthroscope. It is a less invasive method of surgery used to both diagnose and treat issues in the joints.”
View in Article
1 hr
6-8 wks
Success Rate
Arthroscopic treatment of total knee arthroplasty complications
“knee arthroscopy is an effective procedure for the treatment of some patients with symptomatic TKA. The approximate rates of therapeutic success vary according to the problem in question: 85% in soft-tissue impingement; 90% in arthrofibrosis”
View in Article


Total Knee Replacement in Istanbul

  • Knee replacement is a surgical procedure that replaces a severely damaged knee joint.
  • It involves removing damaged joint surfaces and implanting metal and plastic components.
  • It alleviates pain and improves mobility in patients with advanced arthritis or joint degeneration.

Total Knee Replacement in Istanbul

Total Knee Replacement
Source: Medical News Today[7]Medical News Today
Knee replacement options: What are some types and considerations?
“Knee replacements aim to improve functionality and minimize pain for people experiencing knee damage from arthritis or injury. Total knee replacements resurface the entire joint, while partial replacements only resurface one area. ”
View in Article
1-2 hrs
3-6 months
15 yrs[8]Medical News Today
Knee replacement options: What are some types and considerations?
“The AAOS states that 15 years after surgery, 90% of modern total knee replacements are still working well.”
View in Article


ACL Reconstruction in Istanbul

  • It is often required for athletes and active individuals with a torn ACL.
  • ACL reconstruction aims to restore stability and function to the knee.
  • In this, the damaged ACL is replaced with a graft (usually from the patient’s hamstring).

ACL Reconstruction in Istanbul, Turkey

ACL Reconstruction
Source: Medical News Today[9]Medical News Today
What to know about ACL reconstruction surgery
“ACL reconstruction surgery can help restore mobility and stability to the knee following a severe injury. These injuries include tearing and are more common in athletes.”
View in Article
2-3 hrs
8-12 wks
Relationship between ACL reconstruction and meniscal repair. Quality of life, sports return and meniscal failure rate. 2 to 12 years follow-up
“Conclusions good results with 92% of sports return, low rate of complications, and low retear rate, even lower when is associated to ACL reconstruction and in external meniscus repair. High values at SF-12 between 2 groups.”
View in Article


Meniscus Repair in Istanbul

  • Meniscus tear is a common knee injury that occurs mostly in athletes.[11]Medical News Today
    What’s to know about torn meniscus?
    “The most common knee injury is the torn meniscus. Though a torn meniscus can happen to anyone, this injury occurs most often to athletes.”
    View in Article
  • Meniscus repair is a surgical procedure where a surgeon repairs the torn meniscus using a suture.[12]Medical News Today
    What’s to know about torn meniscus?
    “Meniscus repair is a procedure in which the surgeon uses sutures to stitch together the torn portion of the meniscus.”
    View in Article
  • However, the damaged portion is removed (partial meniscectomy) when repair is not possible.

Meniscus Repair in Istanbul

Meniscus Repair
1 hour
8 weeks
7 years[12]SPRINGER
A systematic review about long-term results after meniscus repair
“A total of 12 retrospective case series (level 4 evidence) were identified that reported about failure rates of more than 7 years follow-up.”
View in Article


Cartilage Restoration in Istanbul

  • Cartilage damage often responds to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications.[13]Medical News Today
    What you need to know about cartilage damage
    “Cartilage damage is often treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)”
    View in Article
  • Procedures like microfracture and ACI may be performed to treat damaged knee cartilage.[14]Medical News Today
    What you need to know about cartilage damage
    “under the damaged cartilage, the surgeon drills tiny holes (micro-fractures), exposing the blood vessels that lie inside the bone. This causes a blood clot to form inside the cartilage that triggers the production of new cartilage.”
    View in Article
  • These techniques aim to promote the growth of healthy cartilage tissue or replace damaged areas.

Cartilage Restoration in Istanbul, Turkey

Cartilage Restoration
1-3 hrs
12 wks
Cartilage Surgery
“cartilage surgery, osteotomy, or conversion to arthroplasty), are uncommon (<18%). Survival rates decline with time: 91% to 95% at 5 years,12,20 76% to 85% at 10 years,12,20 and 74% to 76% at 15 years.”
View in Article

Explore the intricacies of knee surgery with our in-depth guide in the upcoming section.

Knee Surgery in Istanbul: Procedure Breakdown

From repairs to replacements, it’s a systematic process that ensures optimal recovery and function.

Here’s a brief step-by-step breakdown of the typical knee surgery process:


Begin pre-operative preparation, medical consultations, and physical evaluations about a month before the surgery date.

Diagnostic Tests

Conduct preparatory and diagnostic tests, including blood count, clotting assessment, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and urine tests.

Tissue Removal

The orthopedic surgeon removes damaged cartilage and bone during the procedure (under general or spinal anesthesia).

Implant Placement

Lastly, positioning of a new implant, typically made of metal, plastic, or a combination, to restore knee alignment and function.

Source: Medical News Today[16]Medical News Today
What to expect during a knee replacement
“pre-operative preparation, medical consultations, and physical evaluations usually begin a month before the set date of the operation. Preparatory and diagnostic tests will include checking blood count, seeing how the blood clots, carrying out electrocardiograms (ECGs), and urine tests. Surgery is usually performed either under general, spinal, or epidural anesthetic. During the procedure, the orthopedic surgeon will remove the damaged cartilage and bone, and then position the new implant”
View in Article

Experience the Future: Robotic Knee Replacement in Istanbul

Step into the future of knee surgery with robotic precision in Istanbul – a pioneering approach for lasting knee health.

A 65-Year-Old Patient Praising Robotic Surgery in Istanbul

How Robotic Knee Surgery is Advanced Than Knee Surgery?

Robotic knee surgery uses advanced technology for better precision than traditional methods.

It ensures quicker recovery and improved results.

Here are the 5 benefits Robotics offers above conventional knee surgery.

  • Accuracy: Robotic systems enhance implant placement using the patient’s anatomy.
  • Personalization: The procedure can be personalized for each patient’s unique anatomy using a 3D model.
  • Reduced Trauma: Robotic systems can lead to smaller incisions, reducing trauma and potentially speeding up recovery.
  • Better Outcomes: Some studies suggest better long-term outcomes and reduced wear on implants due to the precise placement.
  • Enhanced Visualization: Surgeons often have a more detailed view of the area, allowing for more informed decisions during surgery.
Source: Springer[17]Springer
Complications and downsides of the robotic total knee
“Robotics was first introduced into orthopedics surgery in the 1980s to improve the accuracy in implant positioning, prosthesis alignment and to reduce the rate of complications compared to conventional manual techniques [28]. Robotic total knee arthroplasty enhances the surgeon’s preoperative planning capabilities and real-time intra-operative dynamic referencing to allow for continuous assessments of range of motion and ligamentous tensioning. ”
View in Article
1-2 hours
6-10 weeks
15-25 years[18]PUBMED
How long does a knee replacement last? A systematic review and meta-analysis of case series and national registry reports with more than 15 years of follow-up
“In the meta-analysis, we weighted each series and calculated a pooled survival estimate for each data source at 15 years, 20 years, and 25 years, using a fixed-effects model.”
View in Article

Post-Knee Surgery Aftercare: Dos & Don’ts

In the critical phase following surgery, proper aftercare is vital for a successful recovery.

Here, we outline the key “Dos and Don’ts” to guide you toward a smoother rehabilitation journey.


  • Consider iron supplements to support wound healing and muscle strength.
  • Adhere to the guidelines provided by your surgeon, including medication & exercises.
  • Participate in recommended physical therapy sessions to regain strength and mobility.
  • Take prescribed pain medications to manage discomfort and use ice packs to reduce swelling.


  • Don’t stand still for extended periods to prevent ankle swelling.
  • Do not soak the wound until the scar is fully healed to reduce the risk of infection.
  • Refrain from bending down and lifting heavy objects, especially during the initial weeks.
  • Be vigilant of infection around the incision site, such as redness, increased swelling, or discharge.

Source: Medical News Today[19]Medical News Today
What to expect during a knee replacement
“To take iron supplements to aid wound healing and muscle strength Not to bend down and lift heavy things, at least for the first few weeks Not to stay standing still for long periods, as the ankles might swell To use crutches, a walking stick, or a walker until the knee is strong enough to take your body weight To use all medications according to the instructions To carry out the recommended exercises to encourage proper mobility To keep the affected leg raised on a footstool when sitting To avoid soaking the wound until the scar is completely healed, because of the risk of infection To monitor for any signs and symptoms of infections, blood clots or pulmonary embolism”
View in Article

Exploring Medical Tourism in Istanbul, Turkey

Istanbul, a thriving hub for international patients, beckons with remarkable affordability.

Istanbul, bridging Europe and Asia, is Turkey’s most populous city.[20]European Space Agency
Istanbul, Turkey
“Istanbul, historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey”
View in Article

It is an enchanting blend of history, culture, and modernity.

Its unique geographical position and rich past draw tourists from all around the globe.

Scenic View of Istanbul, Turkey

Scenic View of Istanbul, Turkey

What To Do in Istanbul, Turkey?

Places To Visit

Hagia Sophia

Originally a cathedral, it later became a mosque.[21]Dumbarton Oaks
Hagia Sophia: The History of the Building and the Building in History
“It was the principal church of the Byzantine Empire in its capital, Constantinople (later Istanbul), and a mosque after the Ottoman Empire”
View in Article

Hagia Sophia showcases Istanbul’s history with its massive dome and mosaics.

Its structure influenced both Christian and Muslim architectural trends.

Hagia Sophia in Istanbul
The Blue Mosque, Istanbul

The Blue Mosque

It’s renowned for its blue tiles inside. This historic mosque is still active.

It’s an Ottoman Empire architectural marvel.

The mosque has six distinct minarets, a rarity in Islamic architecture.

Source: Smart History[22]Smart History
The Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmet Camii)
“The mosque dominates Istanbul’s majestic skyline with its elegant composition of ascending domes and six slender soaring minarets. Although considered one of the last classical Ottoman structures”
View in Article

Topkapi Palace

It was the Ottoman sultans’ main residence. Today, it’s a museum.

It displays imperial collections, including the Prophet Muhammad’s belongings.

The palace offers panoramic views of the city and the Bosphorus.

Topkapi Palace in Istanbul
Source: Topkapi Palace[23]Topkapi Palace
About Topkapı Palace
“The Topkapi Palace is a stunning example of Ottoman architecture… its beautiful setting on the Bosphorus, and its fabulous architecture and collections. ”
View in Article



A staple in Turkish dining, where meat is often skewered and grilled.

Kebabs range from spicy “Adana” to herbed “Urfa“.

Each has its unique blend of spices and preparation methods.

Kebab - Popular dish in Istanbul
Baklava - Sweet Pastry in Istanbul


A sweet pastry made with filo.

It’s layered with nuts and sweetened with syrup.

Baklava’s crispy texture and rich flavor make it a favorite.


Small dishes are served before the main courses.

These can include hummus, tabbouleh, and more.

Mezze offers a taste of diverse Turkish appetizers.

Mezze - Popular Istanbul Dish

Passport and Visa Requirements

  • Passport: You’ll need a passport that is valid for at least 6 months from the date of entry into Turkey.
  • Visa: You’ll need a tourist visa to enter Turkey. They are generally valid for 90 days within a 180-day period.
Source: Gov.UK[24]Gov.UK
Foreign travel advice Turkey
“If you are visiting Turkey, your passport must: be valid for at least 150 days from the date you arrive… If you’re visiting Turkey for tourism or business for up to 90 days in any 180-day period, you do not need a visa.”
View in Article
Note: Always check with the official Turkish embassy website for the most up-to-date visa and passport requirements.

Traveling From the UK to Istanbul

Visiting Istanbul is straightforward and efficient, with several direct flights available.

Flights From Different UK Cities to Istanbul
UK City No. of Hours No. of Stops
London 3 h 50 m Direct
Manchester 4 hours Direct
Birmingham 4 hours Direct
Edinburgh 4.5 hours Direct
Glasgow 6 h 20 m 1 Stop
Note: Flight durations and stops may vary depending on specific airline routes and conditions.

Safety First: Is Knee Surgery in Istanbul a Secure Choice?

Turkey presently has a Level 2 Travel Advisory from the U.S. Government.

Turkey Travel Advisory
“Travel Advisory July 26, 2023Turkey – Level 2: Exercise Increased Caution”
View in Article

Pondering the safety of knee surgery in Istanbul, Turkey?

Since no country is devoid of petty crimes, we understand your concern!

However, most parts of Turkey are usually safe for visitors to travel.[26]The Times
Turkey travel: is it safe to visit and what’s the latest advice?
“It depends on where you’re travelling to but most regions in Turkey are safe and tourist-friendly.”
View in Article

Let’s break down the safety aspect both as a traveler and as a patient.

As a Patient

Istanbul, Turkey is a quite safe option for getting knee surgery.

The following pointers ensure your safety as a medical tourist.

  • JCI accredited hospitals
  • Surgeons with over 20 years of experience
  • Positive Google reviews and patient testimonials
  • Credibility of MLP Care (chain of 31 hospitals across 17 cities)
  • Technologies like – Da Vinci Robotic Surgery & Robotic Prosthetic Surgery

As a Traveler

Istanbul is a safe city to explore, even for a solo traveler.[27]Bounce
Is Istanbul safe to visit?
“The simple reply to, “Is Istanbul safe to travel alone” is YES. Safety in Istanbul is not that big of a concern, even for a solo traveler.”
View in Article

While Istanbul is safe, it’s still best to exercise caution when you’re out exploring on your own.

Keep the following safety tips in mind to have a hassle-free experience.

  • Don’t accept drinks from strangers.
  • Beware of pickpockets in tourist areas.
  • Stick to metered rates while traveling in local taxis to avoid excess charges.
  • Do not engage with the shoe cleaners no matter how hard they try to get your attention.
  • While making payments from the card, make sure the card machine charges in Turkish Lira.
Source: Bounce[28]Bounce
Is Istanbul safe to visit?
“Taxi drivers scam Another popular scam that can affect visitors in Istanbul is one pulled by local drivers of taxis… Shoe shine scam One common scam that is unique to Istanbul is the “shoe shine scam.”.. Currency scam Beware of the currency scam, which is when shops and vendors charge a tourist’s credit card in Euros instead of Turkish Lira.”
View in Article

Let’s navigate through frequently asked questions.


Why should I consider Istanbul for my knee surgery?

Istanbul offers world-class medical facilities at a very reasonable price.

On top of that, experienced surgeons will ensure you get the best care possible.

Istanbul is rich in culture and history.

Thus, you can combine your treatment with the allure of a historic city.

Last but not least, hospitals here offer comprehensive post-operative care to the patients.

What is the average cost of knee surgery in Istanbul?

The average cost of knee surgery in Istanbul ranges between €10,000€12,700.

That’s approximately 57% cheaper than in the UK and other Western nations.

Total Knee Replacement in Istanbul (Robotic) costs around €12,700.

However, the same treatment in the UK would cost you €30,000.

Wrapping it Up!

Knee Surgery in Istanbul, Turkey, is a doorway to premium healthcare without breaking the bank!

Embark on a journey to Istanbul, Turkey, where healthcare meets travel.

It’s time to choose affordability without compromising on excellence.

Contact MTC and give your knee the care it needs without emptying your wallet.


  1. Expatistan: Cost of living in Turkey compared to United Kingdom
  2. Health Turkey: Medical VISA
  3. Medical News Today: What to expect during a knee replacement
  4. Medical News Today: What is knee arthroscopy?
  5. NCBI: Arthroscopic treatment of total knee arthroplasty complications
  6. Medical News Today: Knee replacement options:
  7. Medical News Today: What to know about ACL reconstruction surgery
  8. Research Gate: Relationship between ACL reconstruction and meniscal repair
  9. Springer: Complications and downsides of the robotic total knee arthroplasty
  10. NCBI: How long does a knee replacement last?
  11. Earth.esa: Istanbul, Turkey
  12. Dumbarton Oaks: Hagia Sophia: The History of the Building
  13. Smart History: The Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmet Camii)
  14. Topkapi Palace: About Topkapi Palace
  15. Gov.UK: Foreign travel advice Turkey
  16. Travel.State.UK: Turkey Travel Advisory
  17. The Times: Turkey travel: is it safe to visit
  18. Bounce: Is Istanbul safe to visit?