Diagnosis of cervical cancer
- PAP smear: the PAP smear is a screening test, and should be done on a regular basis. It has been recommended, that, the test ought to be done, once the woman becomes sexually active, and from the age of 20 years in sexually inactive women. This screening test helps identify precancerous stages, thus improving cure rates significantly.
- Colposcopy: once a PAP smear detects abnormalities, a colposcopy is performed. A surgical instrument called a colposcope is introduced, to have a closer look at the cervix. The procedure assists in the decision making of the course of action to be followed.
- Punch biopsy: performing a biopsy becomes essential, once abnormal cell have been sighted. Some amount of cervical tissue is removed for microscopic examination.
- Cone biopsy: this biopsy procedure involves the removal of a cone shaped portion of the cervical tissue for microscopic examination.
- LEEP: Loop electro-surgical excision procedure requires the use of an electrical wire to snip off a piece of the tissue for further examination.
- EEC: Endo-cervical curettage is done to scrape away cervical tissue for laboratory analysis.
- CT scan: getting a computerized tomography becomes indispensable when the cancer has become invasive. It involves taking special X-rays to produce detailed images of the organs in the body, in cross section to visualize the extent of the spread.
- IVP: an intravenous pyelogram is taken to picture the degree of spread to the kidneys, ureters, and the bladder.
- Chest XRAY: chest X-ray needs to be done in advanced cases of cancer, to identify cancer spread to the lungs.
Surgical management of cervical cancer
Choice of the appropriate surgical procedure depends on the stage and the site of the cervical cancer. The diverse surgeries and forms of treatments used are:
- Conization: This procedure involves the removal of a cone shaped piece of the cervical tissue for examination and investigation. This procedure is done if PAP tests reveal the presence of precancerous cells.
- Hystrectomy: A procedure which entails the removal of the cervix and the uterus. There are further sub types – a vaginal hysterectomy (extraction of the uterus and the cervix through the vagina), a total abdominal hysterectomy (removal of the uterus and the cervix through a large abdominal incision), and a laproscopic hysterectomy (removal of the uterus and the cervix through a small incision in the abdomen and using a laproscope). More about Hystrectomy Surgery Abroad
- Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: A surgery that entails the removal of the fallopian tubes and the ovaries (components of the female reproductive system).
- Radical hysterectomy: This surgical procedure, removes the uterus, cervix, and a part of the vagina. Further more, the lymph nodes in the pelvic region are also dissected. The ovaries are spared.
- Pelvic exentration: This procedure calls for the removal of the cervix, uterus, vagina, ovaries, lymph nodes, lower colon, rectum, and bladder. Artificial openings are made for the elimination of urine and feces in to a collection bag. Plastic surgery can be resorted to for the reconstruction of an artificial vagina. More about total pelvic exenteration abroad.
- Cryosurgery: An advanced procedure, it involves the freezing and destruction of the cancerous tissue. It is advocated in the management of pre-invasive cancers.
- Laser surgery: A laser beam is used as a knife to make blood-less incisions to excise smaller abnormal tissues.
- Loop electro-surgical excision procedure (LEEP): An electrical current passes through a thin wire loop that acts as a knife to excise out abnormal tissue.
- Radiotherapy: In cases, where the carcinoma has spread beyond the cervix and surgical intervention alone can not suffice, radiotherapy becomes necessary. Radiotherapy also promises a prevention of recurrence. Both internal and external radiotherapy are utilized. The therapy cycles are 5 days a week for a period of 6 weeks. Certain side effects of the treatment are hair loss, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, and dysuria. Stages 1B and 2A show 85 to 90 % 5 year cure rates, 2B shows 60 to 65 %, stage 3 shows 25 to 40 % cure rates, and 4 shows 15 to 20 % cure rates.
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is used to destroy cancer cells remaining after surgery. Chemotherapy may be given before the therapy, and then after the therapy to ensure that no cancer cells are left behind. The drugs are given through a series of injections. Side effects of the therapy are loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, headaches, and dysuria. More about chemotherapy abroad.
Cervical cancer management in India:
India offers the diverse surgical procedures and radio-chemotherapy to manage carcinoma of the cervix effectively and optimally. Furthermore, extremely skilled medical personnel and state of the art surgical expertise and apparatus, at subsidized rates, makes India a sort after destination for medical tourism.
Cervical cancer management in Jordan:
Jordan provides the medical know-how, ample skill, and top notch machinery and tools which have been proven to be extremely safe and highly beneficial in the management of cervical carcinomas.
Cervical cancer management in Mexico:
Prompt medical help, surgical proficiency, an excellent infrastructure, all, at an affordable cost, while, not compromising on the degree of quality, make Mexico, a vastly preferred destination for health care. The hospitals are well endowed with all the modern surgical procedures, machinery, and eminent medical facilities.
Cervical cancer management in South Korea:
The accessibility of qualified, experienced and trained doctors and surgeons, coupled with the use of the most recent technological innovations, at a portion of the fees that are charged in the U.S., has made Turkey a top medical tourism destination for oncological procedures. The medical facilities grant ideal after care and also prevent the occurrences of complications.
Cervical cancer management in Turkey:
Distinguished health care competence, deft surgeons, and modern surgical processes, tools and technologies have helped make Turkey rank high up on the charts. In addition, excellent medical care at a low cost is a feather in its cap.
Cyberknife in India
Cyberknife at Anadolu Medical Center, Turkey
Chemotherapy Treatment (CHOP) Abroad
Cyberknife Cancer Radiotherapy Overseas Radical Gastrectomy Surgery Abroad
Mastectomy Surgery Abroad
Total Pelvic Exenteration Abroad
Medical Tourism Corporation facilitates affordable cervical cancer treatment in Europe (Turkey) and other overseas world-class oncology treatment destinations.