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Bone Marrow Transplant Surgery – Abroad

Bone Marrow Transplant Surgery cost:
{the cost covers all destination medical & logistics costs}
International Destinations: India, Jordan, Mexico, South Korea, Turkey

Bone marrow is the fatty tissue which is located inside the bones. Bone marrow contains stem cells which subsequently grow to form red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets, which are essential components of our vascular system. Hence the procedure is also referred to as Stem cell transplant procedure. Each of these cells formed from the stem cells perform specific functions like oxygenation of tissues, protection of body from infection and enhancing homeostasis.

A bone marrow transplant procedure involves replacement of a diseased or dysfunctional bone marrow tissue by healthy stem cells which are destroyed due to radiation therapy or chemotherapy. There are different types of transplant procedures which depend upon the intensity of the problem and the urgency of the transplant. Developing countries like Mexico in North America, Jordan and Turkey in West Asia, India in South East Asia and South Korea in East Asia, have strong and excellent healthcare infrastructures and technologies which provide bone marrow transplant surgeries at lower prices compared to hospitals in the United States of America.

Need for Bone Marrow Transplant Procedure

Bone marrow transplant or Stem cell transplant procedure is recommended in some of the following conditions,Certain forms of cancers including lymphoma, multiple myeloma and leukemia, which affect the functioning of a healthy bone marrow.

In cases of clinical conditions where the bone marrow fails to produce the right quality or quantity of blood cells and platelets. These conditions include,

  • Sickle cell anemia: A genetic disorder in which the morphological structure of the red blood cells is distorted o Aplastic anemia: An autoimmune disorder in which the bone marrow does not produce adequate number of red blood cells required for normal physiological functioning
  • Thalassemia: A genetic disorder which results in the production of biochemically abnormal red blood cells, which resulst in excessive destruction of cells and consequently, anemia
  • Neutropenia: An abnormal condition, where the bone marrow fails to produce adequate number of white blood cells
  • Severe types of Immunodeficiency syndromes: In critical situations, when chemotherapy or radiation therapy tend to destroy the patients bone marrow completely resulting in severe complications.

Bone marrow transplant procedures

There are three different methods of conducting bone marrow transplants which depend upon the donor of the transplant tissue. They include,

  • Autologous bone marrow transplant: Auto” implies “self”, whereby the patient is the donor. This transplant procedure is used for patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy treatment regimen which are known to suppress the bone marrow functions. Stem cells are taken from the peripheral blood stem cells prior to the therapy treatment. These stem cells are subsequently re-implanted into the patient. Due to the nature of this procedure it is also referred to as “rescue transplant”.
  • Allogeneic bone marrow transplant: When the donor shares the same genetic profile with the donor it is referred to as allogeneic bone marrow transplant. The donor may be anyone from the patients close family (i.e. parent, twin, brother or sister) or any unrelated individual with a similar gene profile. When the donor is a parent or a sibling it is referred to as haploid identical match (half identical to the recipient). When the donor is an identical twin it is referred to as a syngeneic transplant (completely identical to the recipient). Occasionally bone marrow transplants from unrelated donors with similar genetics are also done.
  • Umbilical cord transplant: In this case, stem cells are taken from the umbilical cord immediately after the delivery. These cells mature faster and are more effective than other transplants and often use for transplant among infants born with deficient bone marrows.

Pre-bone marrow transplant procedure:

Prior to the transplant the recipient and the donor will be prepared for the procedure. The procedural guidelines include,

Preparing the recipient:

  • A detailed and complete physical examination and evaluation of the recipient’s medical history will be undertaken. The recipient will be subjected to several tests prior to undertaking the transplant procedure.
  • The patient will be required at the hospital a few days prior to the scheduled transplant procedure. During this time a catheter will be inserted into larger blood vessels, usually in the neck, to receive treatments, fluids, and nutrition.
  • A suitable donor will be identified through a complex and lengthy procedure.
  • Some patients may require counseling to deal with the emotional stress of undertaking a transplant procedure. The patient is issued directives by the medical team with regards to routine activities.

Preparing the donor

  • As mentioned earlier, the donor could be a parent, sibling, relative or a completely unrelated person. The donors are identified.
  • Once the donor is identified, the tissue matching of HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen), is conducted before the transplant to review the success of the transplant.
  • A successful donor match is subjected to various investigations to evaluate their health status and exposure to the virus. A complete genetic analysis is undertaken before the extent of the match is determined
  • After successful preliminary assessments, stem cells of the donor are collected through a needle placed in the bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells.

Post-bone marrow transplant care:

  • Most transplants require hospitalization, except for autologous transplants which can be done on Out patient basis
  • Hospital stay may range from four to six weeks. ” The patient will be closely monitored for blood and vital signs.
  • Anti biotic, Anti fungal and Anti viral medications are prescribed to prevent infections
  • Oral feeding may start only after gastrointestinal problems like diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and mouth sores cease.
  • Occasionally some patients may require blood transfusion

Success Rate of Bone marrow transplant procedure:

The success of the procedure will depend upon several factors like age, sex, overall health status of the recipient, extent of match with the donor, genetics and tolerance to medications and treatment. Continuous follow up is vital for effective management of transplant cases. Ideally a recipient would take about 12 months for complete recovery, during which time the patient has to take great care and follow the advice of the medical team.

Complications of the Bone marrow transplant procedure:

Immediate complications include:

  • Infections due to low white cell count
  • Internal Bleeding in any part of the body due to low platelet count
  • Anemia due to low red blood cell count
  • Gastro intestinal distress, manifested, in the form of diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting and severe inflammation of the gastro intestinal mucosa
  • Pain

Other long term complications could include:

  • Premature cataract
  • Early menopause
  • Graft versus host disease, in which the host cells attack the donor’s cell and are manifested in the form of skin rash, gastro intestinal distress, and respiratory distress.
  • Delayed growth is observed in children undergoing a transplant

Bone marrow transplant procedure in India:

Some of the leading Indian hospitals have gained international repute for performing bone marrow transplants with an excellent success rate. The success is attributed to high quality procedures and stringent infection control norms. The low cost of bone marrow transplant procedures is attracting several patients to the Indian subcontinent to seek medical care, from around the globe.

Bone marrow transplant procedure in Mexico

With low costs of bone marrow transplant procedures and several JCI accredited international quality hospitals, patients for the United States, prefer Mexico due to a friendly and empathic atmosphere, which hastens healing. Rigid quality and infection control standards have proven effective in improving the outcome of several international patients visiting Mexican hospitals.

Bone marrow transplant procedure in Turkey

Turkey has negated the fundamental concept, that low cost is associated with poor quality of care. Turkey now provides world class quality treatment facilities to international patients, which is reflected by a steady increase in foreign medical tourists visiting the country.

Bone marrow transplant procedure in Jordan

Bone marrow and stem cell transplantations are being conducted in Jordan since the 1990s. However in recent years with technological advancements, the government has transformed the country into a preferred destination for bone marrow transplant in the Middle East. More than 100 transplants are conducted annually in the country, with a major chunk of patients from other countries, which speaks volumes of the quality and success of transplant procedures in the country.

Bone marrow transplant procedure in South Korea

South Korean hospitals have shown substantial success in bone marrow reconstitution and engraftment over the past few years. These successes are attributed to the high quality of medical care and the experience of trained and skilled medical staff in the Korean hospitals. These success rates coupled with low cost, is attracting several medical tourists from the United States.

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Medical Tourism Corporation facilitates affordable Bone Marrow Transplant Surgery overseas at world-class oncology treatment destinations.

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